That’s the question I explore in my latest article (Journal of Services Marketing). Using both the home improvement sector and a real estate brokerage I find that things such as word-of-mouth and maintaining a good website can bring in more clients (at a cheaper cost) than actual advertising can. For a home improvement contractor, each time they get a request they need to submit a proposal which is costly. However, a lot of customers that come via this marketing communications channel haven’t narrowed down their company search. If the consumer comes via a word-of-mouth or the website then they likely did their homework on the firm. This means they are more likely to be a paying a customer. Effect of Interactive Marketing Communications Channels on Customer Acquisition – JSM – 2020.